Models of Māori Success
Kia ora Koutou
Here are some models and theories relating to Māori in an education setting and health. Te Whāriki is an Early childhood curriculum that caters to the learner an holistic manner which works for adults as well as children.
Te Kotahitanga: Addressing educational disparities facing Māori students in New Zealand (2009)
Russell Bishop*, Mere Berryman, Tom Cavanagh, Lani Teddy
Effective teachers of Māori students create a culturally appropriate and responsive context for learning in their classroom.
In doing so they demonstrate the following understandings
- They positively and vehemently reject deficit theorising as a means of explaining maori students’ educational achievement levels
Teachers know and understand how to bring about change in Maori students’ educational achievement and are professionally committed to doing so
(PD projects need to ensure that this happens)
In the following ways:
- Manaakitanga: they care for the student as culturally-located human beings above all else.
- Mana motuhake: They care for the performance of their students.
- Whakapiringatanga: they are able to create a secure, well managed learning environment by incorporating routine pedagogical knowledge with pedagogical imagination.
- Wānanga: they are able to engage in effective teaching interactions with Māori students as Māori.
- Ako: they can use a range of strategies that promote effective teaching interactions and relationships with their learners.
- Kotahitanga: they promote, monitor and reflect on outcomes that in turn lead to improvements in educational achievement for Māori students.
Kaupapa Māori theory (Smith, G. 2003)
- Tino Rangatiratanga (the ‘self-determination’ principle)
- 2. Taonga Tuku Iho (the ‘cultural aspirations’ principle) Maori language, knowledge, culture and values are validated and legitimated.
- Ako Māori (the ‘culturally preferred pedagogy’ principle).Culturally appropriate teaching and learning strategies.
- 4. Kia Piki ake i ngā Raruraru o te Kainga (the ‘socio-economic’mediation principle) To lessen the pressures of the socio-economic position in society of Maori and its effects on learning and education.
- 5. Whānau (the ‘extended family structure’ principle) The whanau is an integral part of Maori cultural practice, values and thinking.
- Kaupapa (the ‘collective philosophy’ principle) A collective commitment to a philosophy that incorporates conscientisation, resistance and praxis
Te Whare Tapa Whā (Sir Mason Durie, 1994)
- Taha Tinana( the capacity for physical growth and development)
- Taha Wairua (the capacity for faith and wider communication)
- Taha Whānau (capacity to belong, to care and to share where individuals are part of a wider social system)
- Taha Hinengaro (the capacity to communicate, to think and to feel mind and body are inseparable)
TE WHĀRIKI: THE PRINCIPLES, STRANDS, AND GOALS FOR THE EARLY CHILDHOOD CURRICULUM
THE PRINCIPLES: There are four broad principles at the centre of the early childhood curriculum.
The early childhood curriculum empowers the child to learn and grow.
Holistic Development (Kotahitanga)
The early childhood curriculum reflects the holistic way children learn and grow.
Family and Community (Whānau Tangata)
The wider world of family and community is a integral part of the early childhood curriculum.
Relationships (Ngā Hononga)
Children learn through responsive and reciprocal relationships with people, places, and things
STRANDS AND GOALS
The strands and goals arise from the four principles. The Whāriki is woven from these four principles and from the following five strands, or essential areas of learning and development. The principles and strands together form the framework for the curriculum. Each strand has several goals. Learning outcomes have been developed for each goal in each of the strands, so that the whāriki becomes an integrated foundation for every child’s development.
Well-being – Mana Atua
The health and well-being of the child are protected and nurtured.
Belonging – Mana Whenua
Children and their families feel a sense of belonging.
Contribution – Mana Tangata
Opportunities for learning are equitable, and each child’s contribution is valued.
Communication – Mana Reo
The languages and symbols of their own and other cultures are promoted and protected.
Exploration – Mana Aotūroa
The child learns through active exploration of the environment.